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All subjects were prospectively enrolled in protocols that collected serial paired blood and CSF samples from chronically HIV-infected subjects undergoing ART interruption ( Monteiro de Almeida et al. 2006 ). A group of five participants was prospectively enrolled in a structured ART interruption study (Group 1, suppressed >2 years) ( Monteiro de Almeida et al. 2006 ). A second group of five participants was retrospectively determined to have undergone treatment interruption (self-reported) for clinical or personal reasons other than viral failure (Group 2, suppressed >6 months). A third group of four participants was retrospectively determined to have undergone treatment interruption (self-reported) for clinical or personal reasons (Group 3, uncertain or no documented suppression). Detailed inclusion criteria (for each group) and clinical information for each participant are provided as Supplementary material S1 . Blood and CSF cellular pellets and supernatant were collected and processed as previously described ( Smith et al. 2009 ; Oliveira et al. 2015 ). Blood CD4 +  T-lymphocyte absolute counts were measured by flow cytometry, and HIV RNA levels in blood plasma and CSF supernatant were quantified by the Amplicor HIV Monitor Test (Roche Molecular Systems Inc.). The study was conducted with appropriate written subject informed consent and was approved by the Human Research Protections Program at the University of California San Diego.

HIV RNA was isolated from blood plasma (QIAamp viral RNA minikit; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), and cDNA was produced (RETROscript kit; Applied Biosystems/Ambion, Austin, TX) according to the instructions of the manufacturer ( Gianella et al. 2011 ). For blood plasma, if HIV-1 RNA levels (i.e. viral load) exceeded 20,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, 500 μl of blood plasma was used; otherwise, 1 ml of blood plasma was used. For CSF, viral population was concentrated from 1 or 2ml of supernatant in order to maximize template input in each 454 reaction (depending on viral load and sample availability). Three coding regions— gag p24 (HXB2 coordinates 1366–1619), pol RT (2708-3242) and env C2-V3 (6928-7344)—were amplified by PCR with region-specific primers, as previously described ( Gianella et al. 2011 ). Rubber gaskets were used to physically separate 16 samples on a single 454 GS FLX titanium picoliter plate (454 Life Sciences/Roche, Branford, CT) during sequencing.

DNA was extracted from 5 million PBMC for each participant (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen, CA). For CSF cellular pellets, DNA was extracted from all available cells (median: 10,000 cells/pellet, range: 514–80,800 cells) using lysis buffer, as previously described ( Christopherson et al. 2000 ; Oliveira et al. 2015 ). For PBMC, total HIV DNA (pol) was quantified by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) from extracted DNA ( Strain et al. 2013 ). Briefly, approximately 1,000 ng of DNA per replicate was digested with BSAJ1 enzyme (New England Biolabs) prior to ddPCR. Total HIV DNA (Pol) was measured with VIC probe using the following cycling conditions: 10 min at 95 °C, 40 cycles consisting of a 30 s denaturation at 94 °C followed by a 60 °C extension for 60 s and a final 10 min at 98 °C. A 1:10 dilution of the digested DNA was used for host cell RPP30 (Ribonuclease P/MRP 30kDa Subunit) PCR (probe VIC) and cycled with the same parameters as Pol. Copy numbers were calculated as the mean of replicate PCR measurements and normalized to one million cells as determined by RPP30 (total cell count). Sequencing was performed as described above.

A panel of 14 multidisciplinary experts in the epidemiology, diagnosis, infection control, and clinical management of adult and pediatric patients with CDI was convened to develop these practice guidelines. A systematic evidence-based approach was adopted for the guideline questions and population, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO) formulations, the selection of patient-important outcomes, as well as the literature searches and screening of the uncovered citations and articles. The rating of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation was supported by a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodologist. In addition to members of both IDSA and SHEA, representatives from the American Society for Health-Systems Pharmacists (ASHP), the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP), and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) were included.

For this 2017 guideline update, search strategies, in collaboration with the guideline panel members, were developed and built by independent health sciences librarians from National Jewish Health (Denver, Colorado). Each strategy incorporated medical subject headings and text words for “ Clostridium difficile ,” limited to human studies or nonindexed citations. In addition, the strategies focused on articles published in English or in any language with available English abstracts. The Ovid platform was used to search 5 electronic evidence databases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects.

To supplement the electronic search, reviewers also hand-searched relevant journals, conference proceedings, reference lists from manuscripts retained from electronic searches, and regulatory agency web sites for relevant articles. Literature searches were originally implemented on 4 December 2012, updated on 3 March 2014, and further extended to 31 December 2016. The 2010 guideline used a search cutoff of 2009 and thus for this guideline, the literature review included a defined search period of 2009–2016. Separate, nondiscrete evidence libraries were created for adults and pediatrics. The result of the searching was 14479 citations being eligible at title and abstract phase of screening for the adult literature. As the 2010 guideline did not address pediatrics as part of any searching, a decision was made to reexamine the evidence landscape for pediatric-related studies that could inform the guideline. For this, the period of 1977–2016 was searched, yielding 3572 citations eligible at title and abstract phase. Those retained at the title and abstract phase of screening were then examined at the full-text phase.

To evaluate the initial search evidence for eligibility, the panel followed a process consistent with other IDSA guidelines. The process for evaluating the evidence was based on the IDSA Handbook on Clinical Practice Guideline Development and involved a systematic weighting of the quality of the evidence and the grade of recommendation using the GRADE system ( Figure 1 ) [ 1–4 ].

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Stereo 3D Toolkit 2
Please check exact version compatibility under the "COMPATIBILITY" tab below
Please check exact version compatibility under the "COMPATIBILITY" tab below
Please check exact version compatibility under the "COMPATIBILITY" tab below

Author: Ryan Cashman

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The Stereo 3D Toolkit is more than a 3D camera. It is a set of tools that enable you to create complex stereoscopic compositions inside of After Effects.

Stereo 3D Toolkit 2 Quick Overview

Camera Rigs - In Version 1 only single cameras could be used to create the Stereo 3D Workflow. In Version 2 , cameras can be parented to null objects to create animation rigs in stereo 3D. Existing camera rigs can be converted to stereo 3D, or new ones can be built and modified as you work.

Camera Rigs - Version 2

2D 3D Video - Version 1's workflow was primarily built for working with CGI. Version 2 's improved workflow and tools make aligning your stereo 3D content to 2D or 3D video easier than ever.

2D 3D Video -

Cinema 4D - Version 1 used a special camera rig, and required you to manually render the left and right channels from Cinema 4D. Version 2 piggybacks on the built-in camera and rendering options for a more seamless workflow. Left and right channels can be exportedsimultaneously using the built in stereoscopic renderer. You can work in stereo 3D using the viewport stereoscopic preview. Download includes an object preset library with render settings and Stereo 3D Camera.

Cinema 4D -

Maya - Version 1 did not have Maya support. Version 2 includes a Stereo 3D Camera project for Maya. Projects using the Stereo 3D Camera can be imported into After Effects as Maya Ascii files. As in Cinema 4D, the Stereo 3D Camera piggybacks on Maya's built-in stereo camera.

Maya -

Improved Performance - With 2 of everything, working in stereo 3D can become system intensive. In Version 1, camera animation could only be adjusted with the stereo 3D preview active. In Version 2 all of the camera and animation work to be performed on the left channel hierarchy. This reduces system strain while you work, calculating both channels only when it's necessary to preview the stereo 3D effect.

Beyond risk assessment tools, our environmental scan identified a variety of educational resources to support clinicians and patients in reducing patients’ risk for hypoglycemia. These tools addressed key themes such as hypoglycemia risk, appropriate prescribing practices, and shared decision-making models. Other patient-specific tools have been developed to improve self-management skills, as have surveys to assess both the fear of hypoglycemia and to track the actual number of hypoglycemic episodes. Our initiative will develop a toolkit of resources for both clinicians and patients that have the potential to improve care for patients at risk for hypoglycemia.

The environmental scan also identified national initiatives that are generating best practices in support of guideline-based care. These range from regional and local research partnerships with industry to larger scale efforts by federal agencies. The HHS national action plan highlighted hypoglycemia associated with insulin and sulfonylureas as a primary concern. Translating the national action plan into action, the US Food and Drug Administration’s ongoing Safe Use Initiative seeks to reduce preventable harm by identifying specific, preventable medication risks and then developing, implementing, and evaluating cross-sector interventions with partners who are committed to safe medication use. The Endocrine Society is an engaged stakeholder in the Safe Use Initiative and is working with other partners to support these goals. The Center for Medicare Medicaid Innovation’s Transforming Clinical Practice Initiative provides primary care and specialty practices with tools and support needed to improve quality of care through practice transformation. These initiatives will help us identify and learn from primary care practices that have been implemented as strategies to address hypoglycemia in at-risk patients.

A national initiative conducted by the VA implemented a primary care intervention that sent electronic health record alerts to assist PCPs in identifying “potentially overtreated” patients ( i.e., patients treated to A1c levels that might confer greater risk than benefit) who might benefit from adjustments to their antidiabetic medications. In addition to improving diabetes management, a key goal of the project was to have PCPs engage patients in conversations about their A1c goals and discuss potential changes to their treatment plans. The initiative succeeded in reducing hypoglycemic episodes in the target population by 18% ( P < 0.005) at 6 months and by 22% at 18 months ( P < 0.005) ( 9 ). A large part of the initiative’s success was its focus on the highest risk group of patients with T2D along with efforts to integrate the risk assessment algorithm into clinicians’ normal workflow.

One of the challenges of synthesizing and generalizing published data about the effect of hypoglycemia and ways to reduce risk is that definitions of hypoglycemia are varied and inconsistent. Recently, JDRF, in collaboration with other stakeholders (including the Endocrine Society), developed and published consensus-based definitions of hypoglycemia ( 10 ). The definitions consist of three levels of hypoglycemia. Level 1 begins at blood glucose levels <70 mg/dL; at that level, patients may be unaware of their hypoglycemia. Level 2 is defined as blood glucose level <54 mg/dL. Level 3 is independent of blood glucose levels and is defined as a severe event characterized by altered mental and/or physical status requiring assistance. Having consensus-based definitions provides tremendous advantages. These can allow us to improve individual patient management, enable the assessment of interventions to prevent or reduce hypoglycemia, advance knowledge in areas such as the long-term impact of nonsevere hypoglycemia on patient outcomes, and support the evaluation of new treatments and technologies to monitor or treat hypoglycemia. Given that the goal of our initiative is to reduce the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia, we intend to use these new definitions.

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